System Analysis and Design

System is defined as a set of elements arranged in an orderly manner to accomplish an objective. System is not a randomly arranged set. It is arranged with some logic governed by rules, regulations, principles and policies. Such an arrangement is also influenced by the objective the system desires to achieve. Systems are created to solve problems. One can think of the systems approach as an organized way of dealing with a problem. In this dynamic world, the subject system analysis and design (SAD) mainly deals with the software development activities.


SAD, as performed by the system analysts, seeks to understand what human need to analyze data input or data flow systematically, process information in the context of a particular business. Furthermore, system analysis and design is used to analyze, design and implements in the support of users and the functioning of business that can be accomplished through the use of computerized information system.

Installing a system without proper planning leads to great user dissatisfaction and frequently causes the system to fall into disuse. System analysis and design lends structure to the analysis and design of information systems, a costly endeavor that might otherwise have been done in a haphazard way. It can be thought of as a series of processes systematically undertaken to improve a business through the use of computerized information system. SAD involves working with current and eventual users of information system to support them in working with technologies in an organizational setting.


When you are asked to computerized a system, it is necessary to analyze the system from different angles. The analysis of the system is the basic necessity for an efficient system design. The need for analysis stems from the following point of view:-

System objective: it is necessary to define the system objectives. Many a times, it is observed that the systems are historically in operation and have lost their main purpose of achievement of the objectives. The users of the system and the personnel involved are not in a position to define the objectives. Since you are going to develop a computer based system, it is necessary to redefine or reset the objectives as a reference point in context of current business requirement.

System boundaries: it is necessary to establish the system boundaries which would define the scope and the coverage of the system. This helps to short out and understand the functional boundaries in the system, and the people involved in the system. It also helps to identify the inputs and the outputs of the various subsystems, covering the entire system.

System importance: it is necessary to understand the importance of the system in the organization. This would help the designer to decide the design feature of the system. It would be possible then to position the system in relation to the other systems for deciding the design, strategy and development.

Nature of the system: the analysis of the system will help the system designer to conclude whether the system is closed type or an open, and a deterministic or a probabilistic. Such an understanding of the system is necessary prior to design the process to ensure the necessary design architecture.

Role of the system as an interface: the system, many a times, acts as an interface to the other systems. It is necessary to understand the existing role of the system, as an interface, to safeguard the interests of the other systems. Any modification or changes made should not affect the functioning or the objectives of the other system.

Participation of the user: the strategic purpose of the analysis of the people to a new development. System analysis process provides a sense of participation to the people. This helps in breaking the resistance to the new development and it also then ensures the commitment to the new development and it also then ensures the commitment to the new system.

Understanding of resource needs: the analysis of the system helps in defining the resource requirement in terms of hardware and software. Hence, if any additional resources are required, this would mean an investment from the point of view of return on such investment. If the return on such investment from the point of view of return on such an investment. If the return on the investment is not attractive, the management may drop the project.